I live in Canada, where we mostly use metric but the Imperial pops up from time to time.

As said above, all the metric system works on a base 10: 1 meter is 10 decimeter, 100 centimeter, and 1000 millimeter.

Distance has already been covered above.

1 kg is 2,2 pounds.

I'm not sure with volumes, but if memory serves 1 liquid once is roughly 0,453 liters, and a gallon is around 4 liters

Units that are commonly used in metric is the meter (roughly 3 feet, 4 inches), centimeter (1/100 of a meter, around 2,5 inches, around the width of your pinky), millimeters (1/1000 of a meter, around the thickness of a dime), and kilometers (1000 meters, the upper speed limit in Canada is 100 km/h, roughly 60 miles/h).

For weight: kilograms, grams and the metric ton (1000 kilograms)

Volumes: Liters and milliliters